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没什幺比关门停业更让我们开心


2020-07-20


没什幺比关门停业更让我们开心
REUTERS/Yuri Gripas

本文节录自  2 月中旬比尔盖兹夫妇写给华伦巴菲特的 公开信 。 2006 年,巴菲特把自己大部分的财富捐给了盖兹基金会,用以对抗疾病、减少不平等,去年底他邀请盖兹夫妇回顾基金会的工作成果、展望未来。在这封信里,盖兹夫妇说,拯救儿童生命是「慈善事业中最划算的一笔生意」,他们提出了一些重要数字 —不只是基金会的工作成果,也是全世界取得的进展。

进入本文前,请先试着说出这些字的英文:1.22 亿   致命的   计画时间间隔

没什幺比关门停业更让我们开心
  122 million—the number of children’s lives saved since 1990.

Melinda: Every September, the UN announces the number of children under five who died the previous year. Every year, this number breaks my heart and gives me hope. It’s tragic that so many children are dying, but every year more children live.

Melinda: Here’s one of our favorite charts. It shows that the number of childhood deaths per year has been cut in half since 1990.

1.22 亿 ——自 1990 年起被挽救的儿童人数。

梅琳达:每年 9 月,联合国都会公布上一年度五岁以下儿童的死亡人数。每年看到这一数位都会令我揪心,但也同时给予我希望。那幺多孩子的生命不断地在逝去,这是多幺悲哀的一件事,但每一年都有更多的孩子活了下来。

梅琳达:这是我们最喜欢的一张图表,它显示自 1990 年起儿童每年死亡人数已经下降了一半。

The Vaccine Costs Under $1

Melinda: …Coverage for the basic package of childhood vaccines is now the highest it’s ever been, at 86 percent. And the gap between the richest and the poorest countries is the lowest it’s ever been. Vaccines are the biggest reason for the drop in childhood deaths.

Melinda: They’re an incredible investment. The pentavalent vaccine, which protects against five  deadly infections in a single shot, now costs under a dollar.

Bill: And for every dollar spent on childhood immunizations, you get $44 in economic benefits. That includes saving the money that families lose when a child is sick and a parent can’t work.

Bill: …The market wasn’t working for vaccines for poor kids because the families who needed them couldn’t afford them. But this gave us an opening. If we could create a purchasing fund so pharmaceutical companies would have enough customers, they’d have the market incentives to develop and produce vaccines.

没什幺比关门停业更让我们开心
资料来源:WHO/UNICEF
每剂疫苗花费不到  1 美元

梅琳达: … 目前儿童基本疫苗的覆盖率达到历史新高 ——86%,并且最富裕国家和最贫穷国家之间的差距是史上最低。儿童死亡人数下降最大的原因就是疫苗。

梅琳达:疫苗是极佳的投资。目前五联疫苗可以让儿童一次性免疫五种致命感染,在全球疫苗免疫联盟援助国家所需要的费用,每剂不到 1 美元。

比尔:而在儿童免疫接种方面每投入 1 美元,你将获得 44 美元的经济效益。这包括避免当孩子生病,家长无法工作对家庭所造成的损失。

比尔:因为贫困家庭无法负担疫苗费用,导致市场无法供应贫困儿童的需求。但这点让我们的工作有了一个切入口。如果我们能够建立一个购买基金让製药公司拥有足够多的客户,那幺这些公司就会因为市场激励的存在来研製、生产疫苗。

Contraceptives Are One of the Greatest Antipoverty Innovations in History.

Melinda: For the first time in history, more than 300 million women in developing countries are using modern methods of contraception…When women are able to  time and space their pregnancies, they are more likely to advance their education and earn an income—and they’re more likely to have healthy children.

Bill: They are also more likely to have a number of children they can support. This leads to fewer dependents that need government services, a growing workforce that includes more women, and more resources for sending children to school.

避孕药具是史上最伟大的除贫创举之一

梅琳达:在开发中国家的妇女有超过 3 亿使用现代方法避孕,这在历史上尚属首次 … 当妇女能够计画怀孕时间和安排怀孕间隔,她们就更有可能在学业方面取得进步,获得工资收入 ——那幺她们就更有可能拥有健康的子女。

比尔:她们更有办法将生育的数量控制在自己的抚养能力内。这会减轻政府公共服务的负担,让更多的女性参与劳动力,政府也会有更多的资源用于儿童教育。

The Most Magical Number We Know: Zero

Bill: This is the number we’re striving toward every day at the foundation. Zero malaria. Zero TB. Zero HIV. Zero malnutrition. Zero preventable deaths. Zero difference between the health of a poor kid and every other kid.

Melinda: Moving toward zero is perhaps the biggest difference between our philanthropy and a business. In the private sector, the goal is to stay in business. In our case, nothing would make us happier than going out of business because we’ve achieved our goals.

我们心目中最神奇的数字 ——零

比尔:这是基金会每天都在为之奋斗的数字:零疟疾、零结核、零爱滋、零营养不良、零可预防死亡;穷人孩子和其他孩子之间实现健康零差别。

梅琳达:对零的追求也许是我们慈善事业和商业的最大区别。在私营部门,企业的目标就是要持续经营。而对于我们来说,没有什幺比关门停业更让我们开心的事了,因为这意味着我们的目标全部达成。

完整公开信内容,请见:www.gatesnotes.com/2017-Annual-Letter 

English Tip: 1 小时破除中英数字转换魔咒

首先你要反覆熟记一个公式,从左到右,从右到左反反覆覆地唸:

10 thousand = 一万 = 10 thousand
10 million = 一千万 = 10 million
100 million = 一亿 = 100 million
1 billion = 十亿 = 1 billion

熟记了这个公式,我们来试试以下几个数字,看能不能把刚才的公式应用得当。

17 万1 万是 10 thousand,17 万是它的 17 倍,是 170 thousand
2 千 8 百万1 千万是 10 million,2 千 8 百万是 28 million
7 亿 6 千万1 亿是 100 million,7 亿是 700 million;1 千万是 10 million,6 千万是 60 million,7 亿 6 千万就是 760 million。
13 亿10 亿是 1 billion,13 亿是 1.3 billion。



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